Monday, June 21, 2010
Illumination in Stadiums - Introduction
All these lamps together with those inside the stadium present a power thirsty load to the power supply source. Today’s stadiums are supplied by up to 5 transformers and dedicated substations just to reduce power outages.
Facts & Figures
A regular world class world cup stadium has a total power rating of up to 1.47MW consisting of 26,000 fluorescent lamps each having a lifespan of 8,000hrs, 4,250 individual lamps and a total area lit of 25000(meters sq.).Lamps are placed before an asymmetric parabolic mirror ensuring maximum illumination of each floodlight lamp. Total consumption can be in the range of 506KWh when fully lit. Total electricity for the stadium is supplied be 5 Transformers.Over 100km of cabling is required to interconnect these luminaries so that they light in uniform.
The cost of designing, purchasing, installation etc. of luminaries is very high. I cannot state figures at this instant but the costs are well above thousands of dollars. This is because they are of high quality and have a long life and also the quantity required. Stadium floodlights are priced according to rating and technology of the lamp filament. Some are so fragile that touching the inner lamp renders the lamp unfit for use. The service life of these luminaries ranges from 8,000-10,000hrs of around 6hrs per day.
Laws & Regulations
FIFA has outlined regulations that should be followed in the design in of luminouries in a stadium to match world standards. No match is to be staged in a stadium that has not met these regulations. The following information is extracted from the FIFA document: TECHNICAL RECOMMENDATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OR MODERNISATION OF FOOTBALL STADIA 19.3 Lighting
For all matches to be played in the evening, the entire surface of the playing area must be evenly lit, with a mean minimum lighting level of 1200lux
In addition, emergency lighting should be available in case of power failures, which would ensure at least 21/3 of the above named lighting level on the playing area.
A backup power supply should be available in case of power failures in order that all public areas retain an acceptably safe standard of lighting, that the match may continue and television coverage may go on uninterrupted.
One of the characteristics of lights used in stadium illumination is the required ‘dead time’ between being switched off and being ready for reuse which is of the order of a 7-10min.In addition to this cool down period, the light can take several minutes after being switched ON before they reach full illumination. In the event of a dip or momentary outage causing the lights to trip and reset, the game could be interrupted for 10-15min.